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u Mary and Linda’s book
Mary’s and Linda’s books.
I usually buy some meat at the Johnson’s.
They took part in the birthday party at Tom’s.
u of 所有格名词词组第二次出现时，用that/those 代替。
The population ofNew Yorkis greater than that ofChicago.
It seems that the students ofUSAare more active than those ofChina.
1. I respect Oprah’s opinion, but I would also like her to respect____.
A. my own B. mine’s C. mine D. me
2. ____ is a great pity that there are some disagreements in the school board meeting.
A. That B. This C. It D. There
3. We like our English teacher because she often tells ______ funny stories in class.
A. us B. our C. we D. ours
4. There are 40 teachers in this school , ten of whom are _____.
A. man teachers B. men teacher
C. man teacher D. men teachers
1、 I don’t know _____ standing over there.
A. the girl’s name B. the name’s girl
C. the name of the girl D. the name’s of girl
2. Today’s libraries differ great from _______.
A. the past B. those of the past C. that are past D. those past
3. The police investigate the ______ about the bank robbery.
A. stander-by B. standers-by C. stander-bys D.standers-bys
Tom and Dick ___are____ (be) good friends.
A singer and dancer ___was___ (be) present at the party.
The worker and writer __is_ (be) talking to the students.
2．用 and 连接的两个名词若被 no, each, every, many a 修饰，则谓语动词用单数。
No bird and no beast ___is ____ (be) seen in the bare island.
Many a boy and many a girl ___has__ (have) made such a funny experiment.
At Christmas each boy and each girl ___is ___(be) given a present.
3. 两个主语由not only…but also, or, either…or, neither…nor 等连接时，谓语动词与第二个主语保持一致．
Either he or I ___am__ (be) to go there.
__Are____ (be) either you or he going to attend the meeting?
4. 主语后有as well as, like, with, together with, but, except, besides,等，谓语应于前面主语保持一致．
A professor, together with some students, __was___ (be) sent to help in the work.
No one but the teachers __is___ (be) allowed to use the room.
如audience, committee，class, crew, family, government, public等.
My family __ is ___ (be) a big family.
My family ____are_ (be) listening to the radio.
The police __ are __ (be) trying to catch the thief.
Five minutes __ is __ (be) enough.
One dollar and seventy eight cents _ is _ (be) what she has.
7. all 作为主语，代表人物时，一般用作复数；代表整个事件或情况时，一般看作单数。
All that I want __ is ___ (be) a good dictionary.
All ___ were/are___ (be) silent.
All __ were/are ____ (be) out of danger.
8． 形容词加定冠词 the 表示一类人时，谓语动词用复数。
What a life the poor __ were __ (be) living!
The young _ are __ (be) happy to give their seats to the old.
9．who, which, that 作定语从句的主语时，其谓语取决于先行词。
l Those who want to go should sign your names here.
l He is one of the students who have passed the exam.
l He is the only one of the students who has passed the exam.
11.还有一些以-s接的单、复数同形的名词，如: headquarters(总部), means(方法、手段), series(系列), species(种类), works(工厂)等，随后动词的单、复数形式取决于这些名称是作单数，还是用作复数。
A headquarters was set up to direct the operation (指挥作战).
The only means to achieve success is to appeal to arms (诉诸武力).
Over sixty percent of the city __was__ (be) destroyed in the war.
Thirty-five percent of the doctors __were____ (be) women.
13.如果主语是all of ...,some of ...,none of ...,half of ...,most of ...等表示非确定数量的名词词组，其后的动词形式依of-词组中的名词类别而定。例如：
Most of the money __ was ___ recovered by Deputy Player.
Most of the members __ were_____ there.
All of the cargo ___ was ___ lost.
All of the crew ___ were____ saved.
14.如果主语是由“a kind/sort/type of ,this kind/sort/type of +名词”构成，动词用单数。
This kind of man annoys me.
These kinds of men annoy me.
Those types/sorts of machines are up to date (最新的，最近的，现代的).
15. 1)由who, why, how, whether等wh-词引导的名词性分句作主语，其后的动词通常用单数。
Who will be chosen to the Beijing is not decided.
What caused the accident and who was responsible for it remain a mystery to us.
1. The educator and scholar fromShanghai. （2003年真题）
A. come B. comes C. is coming D. are coming
2. Many a ____ realized that this doesn’t make any sense. （2003年真题）
A. persons has B. persons have C. person has D. person have
3. What they said _____ us much to think about. （2004年真题）
A. have left B. has left C. is left D. are left
4. A doctor, along with a group of young nurses, __ going to demonstrate the heart operation process. （2005年真题）
A. is B. are C. will D. shall
5. Neither of the employees nor the boss ____satisfied with the profits. （2006年真题）
A. were B. was C. be D. been
6. The computer, working very fast, ___ data at the speed of light. （2007年真题）
A. handles B. handling C. Handled D. has handled
7. In the fall the cattle from the high country back down to the farm. （2008年真题）
A. is driven B. are driven C. drives D. drive
8. When and where to hold the meeting ______ not decided yet. （2010年真题）
A. is B. are C. has D. have
9. After careful investigation we find that one of the statements _______ to be untrue.
A. is turned out B. have been turned outC. has turned out D. have turned out
10. How close parents are to their children ______ a strong influence on the character of their children. （2012年真题）
A. have B. has C. having D. had
1. the +adj.
The injured were taken to hospital for treatment.
The disadvantaged, including the disabled and the elderly need more care and support from the society.
节假日: New Year’s Day, May day, Christmas, April Fools’ Day (中秋，端午例外)
杂志： News Week, Times, Reader’s Digest
一年四季: spring, summer, fall/autumn, winter
by the way
in the end
in the face of
in the future
in the world 究竟，到底
in the least 丝毫，一点
I don’t think you need to worry in the least.
on the average
on the contrary
on the one hand, on the other hand
on the spot 当场，在现场
on the whole 总的来说
the day before yesterday
for the time being
at the cost of 以。。。为代价
More and more countries are developing their industries at the cost of environment.
to the extent of 到。。。程度
tell the truth
as a matter of fact, as a rule, have a chance, have a good time, have a say, have a try, keep an eye on, on a large scale, in a hurry, take a walk, take an interest in
at noon/night/dawn, in front of, at bottom, in order,
in fashion, in fact, at hand, at last, at present, day and night, on top of, take part in, take place
1、The mother asked the boys to put ____ everything in ____ order before they left the room.(10)
A. the, a B. an, the C. /,a D./,/
Would you like some tea or coffee ?
Do we have our meeting in the morning or in the afternoon ?
Do it carefully, or you’ll make some mistake.
Would you like some tea or coffee ?
Do we have our meeting in the morning or in the afternoon ?
Do it carefully, or you’ll make some mistake.
but , yet , however , nevertheless
for , so , therefore , hence
and , or , either…or , neither…nor , not only…but (also) , both…and , as well as
1. 引起名词从句的连词：that , whether , if
1）时间状语从句：when , whenever , as , while, before , after, until, till, since, ever since, once, as soon as, every time, the moment, instantly, directly
2）地点状语从句：where , wherever
3）原因状语从句：as, because, since, seeing (that) , considering (that) , now that , not that…but that
4）目的状语从句：that , so that , in order that , lest , for fear that , in case
5）结果状语从句：that , so … that , such … that
6）条件状语从句：if , unless , so/as long as, so far as, on condition (that ) ,provided ( that )
7）让步状语从句：though , although , no matter , even if , even though , however , whatever
8）比较状语从句：than , as
9）方式状语从句：as , as if , as though
1、We stored up some food and water ____ things got worse.
A.even though B. what if C. now that D. in case
2. We should learn from this lesson and consider the long-term influence of dams _______ the short-term benefits.
A、rather than B. owing to C. because of D. or else
3. Her hair was golden when she was a child, but it went darker _____ she grew up.
A. If B. as C. since D. even
4. Call the university operator, ____ you will find the phone number of Professor Smith.
A. So B. and C. when D. before
5. _____ its good performance, the machine is too expensive.
A. Besides B. Except for
C. In spite of D. Apart from
6. You may write an e-mail to me or just phone me. _____ will do.
A. Each B. Either C. Neither D. None
7. ---Do you like pop music or country music?
---_____. I only like sports.
A. Each B. Either C. Neither D. Both
8. It was already ten o’clock in the evening _______ we arrived at the hotel.
A. since B. while C. that D. when
9. _______ a change of weather, please take the coat with you.
A. Because of B. In spite of
C. In case of D. But for
and, also， as well, as well as， or, too, not only…but also, both … and, either … or, neither…nor等。
besides, in addition（加之，除……之外）, moreover(此外，而且), what’s more， what’s worse等。
but, however, yet, instead, on the other hand, on the contrary, although, different from, despite, in spite of, whereas, unlike, not only…but also, the former…the latter, the first… whereas the second, on the one hand … on the other hand, some…others等。
because, because of, since, as, for, now that, thanks to, due to, for this reason, owing to, considering that, seeing that等。
so, thus, therefore, as a result, so that, then, hence, so…that, such…that, accordingly等。
if, unless, on condition that, as/so long as等。
when, while, after, before, until, as soon as, later, afterwards, soon, lately, recently, since, from then on, eventually, in the meantime, then, suddenly, at the same time, next, early this morning / year / century, after a while, in a few days, now, presently, finally, at last, all of a sudden, form now on, at present, immediately, the moment等。
first, firstly, second, secondly, third, thirdly, above all, first of all, then, next, finally, in the end, at last, afterwards（后来）, meanwhile（几乎同时）, thereafter（在那以后）, last, finally, eventually（终于）等。
in other words, that is to say, to put it another way等。
for instance, for example, take … as an example, namely, such as, like, in other words, that is to say, that is等。
in fact, actually, as a matter of fact, to tell you the truth等。
certainly, indeed, above all, surely, most important, in fact, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, of course, actually, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly, absolutely等。
like, unlike, in the same way, similarly, be similar to, on the contrary, by contrast, on one hand…, on the other hand, otherwise 等。
for this reason, for this purpose, so that, in order to, so as to等。
in a word(总之，简言之), in general, in short(总之), generally speaking, to sum up, finally, in conclusionin summary, on the whole等。
（16）表增补的过渡词：in addition, furthermore, besides, moreover, what’s more等。
two hundred and forty-two，
five thousand and fifty-eight，
9,600,000 nine million six hundred thousand
6+8=14 Six plus eight is fourteen.
9-7=2 Nine minus seven is two.
7X5= 35 Seven times five is thirty-five.
8÷4=2 Eight divided by four is two.
He died in his fifties.
This took place in 1990s/1990's.
The professor became successful in his thirties.
eleven thirty/ half past eleven
five forty-five/ a quarter to six
Number six, line 4, page 19, Bus (No.) 332, Platform (No.) 5, Room 101
A one-month-old baby can recognize its mother by smell.
This eleven-month-old baby can speak a few words.
(The baby is eleven months old.)
The teacher asked us to write a four-thousand-word essay as our homework.
(There are four thousand words in the essay.)
This four-paragraph essay is too difficult for me to understand.
(There are four paragraphs in this essay. )
表示顺序的词称为序数词。如first, second, third, fourth, ninth, twenty-first, forty-fifth等。
序数词可以用来表示日期和世纪。May the first / the first of May(5.1), August the eighth / the eighth of August(8.8), the twentieth century, the twenty-first century
The first of October is our National Day.
She was the third to arrive.
They'll have to do it a second time.
Shall I ask him a third time?
When he sat down , a fourth man rose to ask.
特殊表达法有：one half (1/2),a quarter (1/4), three quarters (3/4) 。
数词部分需特别注意dozen, hundred, million, billion
表示不具体的数字时，须用dozens of, hundreds of 这类的结构。
I want three dozen eggs/ of these.
He has been there dozens of times.
例： It is reported that _____ people in this area were saved in the storm.
A. hundred B. hundred of
C. hundreds of D. some hundreds
The homework for the next period is to write a two-hundred-word composition about your hometown.
Mary is a eleven-year-old girl.
(Mary is eleven years old.)
1. It is ____ from my school to the railway station.
A. two-hours walk B. two-hour’s walk
C. two-hour walk D. a two-hour walk
If I had enough money now ， I would lend it to you.
If I were you ， I would go to tell him the real feeling upon him.
If he had taken your advice ， he wouldn't have made such a bad mistake.
She would have come to enjoy the party if she hadn't been very busy.
I would go shopping with you if it were to be Sunday tomorrow.
If he were to be given another chance to do it again， he could certainly achieve more.
If I had been in that situation， I would not have let the thief escape away with so much money.
Had I been in that situation， I would not have let the thief escape away with so much money.
Should there be a drought， what should we do at that time ？
If there should be a drought， what should we do at that time ？
有时假设的情况并不以条件从句的形式表现出来，而是通过某个介词或介词短语（如：otherwise， without， but for）、上下文或其它方式表现出来。
例如：But for the help from you ， I would not have had the chance to go to college.
Without many teachers’ advice, I could not have passed the examination so quickly.
1.在suggest ， order， demand ， propose，
command， request， desire，insist等表示建议、命令、要求、意见的动词后接的宾语从句中要使用虚拟语气。
ü Mike suggests that Curie should leave the house at once.
ü The leader ordered that the task（should） be finished as soon as possible.
ü Jack proposed that we （should） deal with the problem by the view of development.
2.与suggest ， order， demand ， propose， command， request， desire，insist等动词相对应的名词suggestion， order， demand ， proposal 等后的表语从句或同位语从句中要使用虚拟语气。
ü The general sent the order that the battle（should） be held on until the complete failure of the enemy.
ü My proposal is that we（should） set a deadline for handing in the plan.
3.在It is/was suggested （ordered ， demanded ， proposed ， etc. ） 结构以及necessary ， essential， important， strange， natural等形容词后的主语从句中要使用虚拟语气。
It's requested that we （should） keep the stability of the society for the people's peaceful life.
It is necessary that the badly wounded man（should） be treated immediately.
1. wish ， would rather 后的宾语从句。
He wished he had never been involved in such affairs.
Vivian wishes she could get the job soon.
I would rather you could teach me again.
2. It is（about/high） time that…句型
It is time we went out for a walk.
It was high time they had begun to prepare the experiment.
It is about time we gave up searching for the missing dog.
3. as if， as though引导的从句。如：
The little boy knows so many things as if he was a man.
He acted as usual as though nothing had happened.
4.由if only （要是……，那该多好啊！）引导的惊叹句。如：
If only I had passed the test ！
If only it stopped raining！
• Tom Smith wished that his parents _____ in the stricken area when the earthquake occurred.
• A. were not B. are not
• C. have not been D. had not been
• The proposal that business companies _____guided by professionals for their new scheme of developments was accepted without disagreement.
• A. be B. are
• C. was D. were
• Professor Wang said that he would rather his student Jane ____ to the conference.
• A. go B. went C. gone D. going
• If I ____ a book on the habits of mice, I’d not start working without sufficient observation on them.
• A. were to write B. have written
• C. write D. am writing
_____, the police would have caught the criminal earlier.
• A. Had they received the clue in time
• B. If they received the clue in time
• C. They have received the clue in time
• D. Did they receive the clue in time
• _______ the interference from the local residents, the delegation would have caught the train bound forEdinburgh.
• A. Due to B. Except for
• C. In case of D. But for
• All the participants believe that it is high time that the two neighboring countries ____ a fresh round of negotiation regarding the economic cooperation.
• A. starting B. started
• C. have started D. being starting
• The suggestion that colleges _______ administrated by professors was approved by the board.
• A. is B. are C. be D. were
• The player asked he ＿＿＿ an opportunity to explain his case.
• A. gives B. be given
• C. is given D. should give
• The new findings by the research crew suggested that the government’s housing plans _____not practicable.
• A. be B. should be C. was D. were
• The chairman insist that there＿＿＿ a meeting to be held within the shortest possible time.
• A. is B. will be C. was D. be
• My suggestion was that he ______ the offer as soon as possible.
• A. should take B. takes
• C. would take D. took
• If all the people in the world spoke the same language, cultural and economic ties _____ be much closer among countries now.
• A. will B. should
• C. shall D. would
• I wish I _____ in the sun by a swimming pool instead of sitting in this classroom.
• A. have lain B. were lying C. lay D. lie
• It is essential that all the reports to be published _____ twice.
• A. be checked B. would be checked
• C. were checked D. will be checked
• _____ for their support, he would have gone penniless.
• A. If it is not B. If it is
• C. Were it D. Were it not
• I arrived late; I _____ the traffic to be so heavy this morning.
• A. wasn’t expecting
• B. wouldn’t expect
• C. haven’t expected
• D. hadn’t expected
It is high time that the international community ______together to fight against terrorism.
A. work B works C. worked D. working
The demand made by the workers is that their salaries ___to cover the increased cost of living.
A. increased B. be increased C. be increasing D. were increased
u 倒装可分为二种：将整个谓语提到主语之前的叫完全倒装；而只将be 、情态动词或者助动词放在主语之前的叫做部分倒装。
1.Only then did he find it important to get along with others.
2.Only in this way can we make great progress.
3.Only after he came back were you able to see him.
以关联连词not only...but also开首的句子或者分句也是如此。
Not only did they break into his office, but they also destroy his computer.
(2)、当句首状语为否定词或带有否定含义的词语时，常见的这类词或词语有not, never, hardly, seldom, rarely, scarcely 以及not until, no sooner...than, hardly...when, ...no...等。
1.Seldom had I seen such a beautiful picture.
2.Hardly had I arrived home when the phone rang.
3.Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.
4.At no time have I said such a thing.
u In no case _____ be late for the annual board meeting to be held next Friday.
A. should you B. you should
C. will you D. you will
u Not until the mid-1950s ____ most automakers begin offering seat belts as optional safety features.
A. did B. had C. do D. would
u No sooner____ the top of the mountain than it started raining cats and dogs.
A. did the climbers reached B. the climbers reached
C. have the climbers reached D. had the climbers reached
1.Should I be free this afternoon,I would come and help you with your lesson. (future)
2.Were I in your place. I would not be fit for your job.（present）
3.Had it not been for the captain, the ship would have sunk with all on board. （past）
u ______, the police would have caught the criminal earlier.
A. Had they received the clue in time B. If they received the clue in time
C. They have received the clue in time D. Did they receive the clue in time
u As his advisor, I believe that he is bound to accomplish much at your university ＿＿he be admitted.
A. might B. whether C. had D. should
So excited was he that he couldn't’t say a word.
So warm is the weather that we decide to go shopping.
u Though I am always free on Sundays, I seldom watch television. _____ .
A. So does my sister B. My sister doesn’t
C. My sister is too D. Nor does my sister
u As a matter of fact, our life styles are changing and ＿＿ our bodies changing .
A. as such B. so such C. such as D. so are
Her mother is a warm-hearted old lady, so is mine.
在So it is (was) with 的句型或者当So表示“的确如此，确实是这样”，以示同意和肯定某种说法，或者加以强调时，常常不引起倒装。
Li Ping studies hard, so he does.
You say Tom went to the ball yesterday. So he did, and so did I.
(6) 当neither, nor位于句首，表示前面否定的内容也适用于另一人或物时
“I didn't mean what I said, you know.”
“Neither (Nor) did I”.
John‘s not been to London, neither has Ben.
Pretty as she is , she is not clever.
Try as he would, he might fail again.
Child as he was, he had to make a living.
u ____, Bob still went on with the experiment.
A. As he was tired B. As was he tired C. Tired as he was D. As tired as he
u 巧记倒装句 - 巧计倒装顺口溜
① NB 前倒后不，
② O,NU 主倒从不倒，
③ 2N 前倒后也倒，
u ① NB代表Not only…，but also…引导的并列句。 not only位于句首时，所引导的前面的分句倒装，后面的分句不倒装。故此称为“前倒后不倒”。如：Not only did he come，but also he was very happy．
1）Only when he told me did I know it．
2）Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted．
No sooner…than…, Hardly/Scarcely…when…等句型也属此类用法。如：
No sooner（Hardly） had we reached home than（when）it began to rain．
Neither do I know her name，nor does he.
No matter how busy he is，he always comes to help us．
1.─You like singing and dancing.
A. So do I B. So I do C.I do so D. do I so
2.Her mother is a
warm-hearted old lady .
A. So my mother is B. So is my mother
C. Is my mother so D. My mother so is
3. Not until sixteen to school.
A. he was；did he go B. he was；he went
C. was he；he did go D. was he；went he
4. Hardly when it began to rain.
A. had he got home B. he had got home
C. had got home he D. he home had got
5. Little .
A. did I think of it B. I thought of it
C. did think I of it D. thought of it I
6. Never before in her
life such beautiful and
A. he saw B. did he see C. has she seen D. she has seen
7. So busy that he has no time to spare.
A. he was B. was he C. he is D. is he
8. Only in this way .
A. we can well do it B. can we well do it
C. we can do it well D. can we do it well
u 分词 (现在分词、过去分词)
uI.构成: 肯定形式：to do
否定形式：not to do
u II. 用法：作主语，表语，宾语，宾语补足语，定语，状语
u 1. 作主语：
e.g. To find those stamps is difficult.
To learn English well is not easy.
u 注意1）通常将不定式放在后面，用 “it” 作形式主语放在句首。
e.g. It is difficult to find those stamps.
It is not easy to learn English well.
u 注意2）如果说明不定式表示的动作是谁做的，可在不定式前加“for/of + 名词或人称代词宾格”，构成不定式的逻辑主语。
e.g. It was difficult for him to leaveIndiaand to go to a foreign land.
It was nice of you to help me.
It is very kind of you to say so .
possible, impossible, important, easy, hard, useless, necessary, essential, convenient, difficult…
采用OF的是与人有关的赞美，批评等品质形容词：nice, kind, wise, good, polite, right, clever, bad, wrong, cruel, stupid, foolish, impolite…
e.g. Her wish is to become a doctor.
e.g. We decided to discuss the problem at once.
At last she had managed to get the papers she needed.
e.g. The teacher expected us to carry out the task ahead of time.
I want you to go with me.
u注意4）在make, let, have, see, watch, hear, feel, notice, observe, 等使役动词和感官动词后，宾补中的TO必须省略。Help 后的TO可省可不省。
e.g. I saw her walk into a tea-shop.
Let me try.
she helped the old man (to) do his homework.
e.g. Every stamp is a picture that has a story to tell.
Is there anything to drink?
e.g. I went to the airport to meet my brother.（表目的）
They were surprised to hear the news.
My daughter isn’t old enough to go to school.
u一般式：to do to be done
u进行式：to be doing
u完成式：to have done to have been done
I want to tell what happened.
They seemed to be quarrelling.
He is said to have gone abroad.
I am sorry to have interrupted you.
They asked to be sent to the mountain region to work as teacher.
I.构成： 肯定形式 doing
否定形式 not doing
e.g. Smoking will do you harm.
Getting up early is a good habit.
注意：It’s no use/good + doing
e.g. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
It’s no good waiting here any longer.
e.g. His favorite sport is playing tennis.
Her hobby is dancing.
avoid, consider, deny, enjoy, finish, keep, mind,
miss, suggest, delay, postpone, stand, bear…
e.g. He enjoyed playing cards.
I am sorry I missed seeing you while inBeijing.
e.g. He often do this without realizing it.
He is proud of being a student of newChina.
Are you interested in going to the show?
e.g. swimming pool
一般式： doing being done
完成式：having done having been done
e.g. I regret not having taken your advice.
He was praised for having made great progress lin his studies.
1. like, hate,等可加动名词，也可加不定式；加动名词表示笼统的概念，加不定式表示具体某一次动作或活动。
begin, start, 加动名词和不定式区别不大。
I like dancing very much.
I like to dance tonight.
He’ll start working/ to work.
1）stop doing /to do
e.g. He stopped talking.
He stopped to talk.
2)I remember posting the letter.
Please remember to post the letter.
3)I’ll never forget watching her dancing.
Don’t forget to write to me.
4)I regretted having told you the news.
I regret to say that you fail in the exam.
5)Let’s try solving the math problems.
We must try to finish the work on time.
6)This means wasting a good chance.
I mean to tell you on the phone.
VI. 动名词的习惯用法 ：
uIt is no use doing
ucan’t help doing
ufeel like doing
ube busy (in) doing
u have difficulty/trouble/a hard time/fun/a good time (in) doing
uHow/What about doing
uspend time/money (in) doing on sth
ube/get used to doing
ube accustomed to doing
ulook forward to doing
u pay attention to doing
u according to doing
u owing to doing
u thanks to doing
u prefer doing…to doing…
u object to doing…
u devote oneself/one’s time/life…to doing
II 用法： 现在分词表示主动，动作正在进行；
e.g. exciting stories excited spectators
developing country developed country
The man driving the car didn’t see the old lady crossing the street.
He wore the new clothes provided by his friends.
e.g. The film is interesting.
he seemed interested in what was going on around him.
see, watch, find. hear, feel, get, have…
e.g. Joe saw his classmate delivering newspaper.
I am glad to see may book published.
Living in the countryside, we had few amusements.
Having made the robot, he wanted to test its powers.
Seen from a distance, the mountain looks like an elephant.
Not knowing what to do, the woman telephoned the police.
Praised by the teacher, he was determined to study harder.
Adding it up, we’ll find the answer.
Given more time, I could have done it better.
We threw our arms around each other, jumping with joy.
He sailed forEngland, leaving his wife and child behind.
The teacher sat there, surrounded by his students.
Standing at the top ofBaiyunMountain, the whole city ofGZcan be seen.
Standing at the top ofBaiyunMountain, one can see the whole city ofGZ.
uFollowing Tom, we started to climb the mountain.
uOpening the drawer, he took out a box.
uTaking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.
uNot knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.
uBeing unemployed, he hasn’t got much money.
uHearing the news, they all jumped with joy.
uHaving found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.
uHaving finished her work, she went home.
uThey’re problem left over by history.
uSeen from the hill, the city looks magnificent.
uGiven good health, I hope to finish the work this year.
uThey came in, followed by some children.
uDepressed, he went to see his elder sister.
uWhen treated with kindness, he was very amiable.
1. __________ with the best students, I still have a long way to go.
A. Having compared B. To compare
C. Compared D. Compare
2. The music of the film _________ by him sounds so ___________ .
A. playing, exciting B. played, excited
C. playing, excited D. played, exciting
3. __________ against the coming hurricane, they dared not leave home.
A. Warned B. Having warned
C. To warn D. Warn
4. In __________ countries, you can’t always make yourself _______ by speaking English.
A. English-speaking, understand
B. English-spoken, understand
C. English-speaking, understood
D. English-spoken, understood
5. After ______ the old man, the doctor suggested that he ________ a bad cold.
A. examining, should catch
B. examined, had caught
C. examining, had caught
D. examined, catch
6. _____ , Tom jumped into the river and had a good time in it.
A. Be a good swimmer
B. Being a good swimmer
C. Having been good swimmer
D. To be a good swimmer
7. _____ how to read the new words, I often look them up in the dictionary.
A. Having not known B. Not to know
C. Don’t know D. Not knowing
8. As his parent, you shouldn’t have your child __ such a book.
A. read B. to read C. reading D. be reading
e.g. Spring coming on, the trees turn green.
The question settled, we went back to our work.
It being Sunday, we decided to go for an outing.
I’ll come, weather permitting.
u一般式：writing being written
u完成式：having written having been written
e.g. They stood at the west end of the bridge, talking and waiting for the bus.
Having watered the vegetable, they went home.
The question being discussed is very important.
Having been given a map, we found our way home easily.
e.g. The four other directions shown on the compass are northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest.
It is/was +被强调的部分+that/who+原句其他部分。其中that 表事,who表人。
原句： Betty bought a book from the store last night.
It was Betty who bought a book from the store last night.
It was the book that Betty bought from the store last night.
It was from the store that Betty bought a book last night.
It was last night that Betty bought a book from the store。
u at all, in the world, on earth 等
What on earth are you talking about?
She doesn’t care at all.
udo, every, just, only, single, such, very等.
She does love to work alone.
I do believe her dream will come true.
This is the very picture on which I spent a lot of money.
When we shall have our sports meet is still a question.
It is still a question when we shall have our sports meet.
1）It is + 名词+ that 从句
is a fact (a shame, a pity, no wonder,
good news, …) that …
2）It is + 形容词+ that 从句
is necessary (strange, important,
wonderful, possible, likely, …) that
3） It is+过去分词+that 从句
It is said (reported, decided, …) +that 从句
4）It +不及物动词+ that 从句
seems (happened, doesn’t matter, has
turned out, …) that
What I told you is true.
What I want to know is this.
关连词what=the thing which （that ），因此以上两个句子可以改为：
The thing which I
told you is true.
The thing that I want to know is this.
It is a book what I want. (误)
What I want is a book.
That she will come tomorrow is certain. （她明天到来是肯定无疑的了。）
It is certain that she will come tomorrow.
Where she has gone is not known yet. (她到哪儿去了还不知道。)
How he became a three-good student is known to us all.
Why he didn’t come wasn’t quite clear. （他为什么不来还不太清楚。）
What we need is water.
What we need are useful books.
Has it been announced when the planes are to take off?
Whether he is coming or not doesn’t matter.
It doesn’t matter whether he is coming or not.
He said (that) he would call on his old
I want to know what has happened to her. （我想知道她发生了什么事。）作不定式宾语
Knowing (that) it is cold today, he put on
I was surprised at what you said.
I’m sure that he will be at home to wait for us. (我相信他将在家等我们。)
He told me what I should read.
I thought it strange that he failed to call
The question is who will go there.
This is how I do it.
The reason was that he fell ill.
1、where, why, because, how等引导的从句作that is和this is的表语时，表示具体的地点、原因、方式等。
This is why we put off the meeting.
That is where he will go.
That was because he fell ill.
The reason for his absence was that he
Things were not as they seemed to be. 情况并不是看上去的那个样子。
It looks as if it is (or: were) going to rain. 天看起来要下雨。
John’s suggestion was that we (should) go to the cinema together.
I had no idea that you were here.
The fact that he didn’t attend the meeting
belief, fact, hope, idea, doubt, news, rumor, conclusion, evidence, suggestion, problem, order, answer, decision, discovery, explanation, information, opinion, possibility, truth, promise, report, statement
The news that they won the match is true. 他们比赛获胜的消息是真的
The news that you told us yesterday is true. 你昨天给我讲的消息是真的。
news 是told 的逻辑宾语
The order when we should return hasn’t reached
The day when New China was founded will never
► ____life could be found on Mars was once believed by scientists. (学位真题2008年6月)
A. What B. As C. That D. While
► Contact the police and tell them all you know about the accident. (学位真题2008年6月)
A. this B. that C. what D. which
► Her hair was golden when she was a child, but it went darker she grew up. (学位真题2008年6月)
A. if B. as C. since D. even
► The instructor won’t give them any help _____ absolutely necessary. (学位真题2008年6月)
A. when B. if C. unless D. once
► Many of the people refused to answer any questions.
A. question B. questionedC. questioning D. were questioned
► The lesson Edwards and Clark learned then is ______ the more down-to-earth guy won. (学位真题2007年11月)
► A. that B. what C. why D. only
►关系代词：who, whom, whose, that, which, as等（在句中作主、表、宾、定等成分）
►关系副词：where (on which), when (in which), why (for which)（在句中作状语）
In this earthquake, the number of people who lost homes reached as many as 250,000.
I have many good friends to whom I am going to send postcards.
1. You’re the only person ____advice he might listen to.
You’re the only person whose advice he might listen to.
2. Potato can be grown in places ____it is too cold to grow rice.
Potato can be grown in places where it is too cold to grow rice.
3. I don’t like the way _____ you treat us.
I don’t like the way (that) you treat us.
e.g. The people whom\who\that you met in the campus are from Australia.（作宾语）
This was the time when\at which she left forBeijing.
The place which he often visits is always full of artists.
e.g. The classroom that is on the fourth floor is poorly equipped.
b. 当先行词前有the only, the very, the last等词修饰时；
c. 当先行词为anything, nothing, something, everything, all, little, much等不定代词修饰时；
d. 当先行词前有all, every, no, some, any, little, much, few等词修饰时；
e. It is 句型中的引导定语从句时。
e.g. He bought a book that could give him much knowledge and which could help him to kill the time.
Those who have the interest in history are welcomed to participate in this seminar.
7. as 从句的先行词是the same, such, 或被他们所修饰；多用于表示肯定意义的从句中，不用于表否定意义的从句中。
e.g. Many of the sports are the same as they were when they started.
The result was not such as he expected.
It was raining hard, which (as) was unexpected.
a. 谓语动词的固定搭配 e.g. This is the evidence with which the case is connected.
b. 先行词 e.g. I’ll never forget the day on which\when I joined the party.
My cousin whose father is a teacher wants to be an actor.
My cousin , whose father is a teacher , wants to be an actor.
1.A.This is the place where I lived ten years ago .
B.She is going to spend the winter holiday inMacao, which returned toChinain 1999.
2.A.He is a man who I can ask for help.
B.His father , who works inBeijing, came back yesterday
His father, who works inBeijing, came back yesterday.
Shanghai, which is inEast China,is developing rapidly.
He missed the show, which was a great pity.
He invited me to dinner, which made me happy.
As everyone knows,Chinais a country with a long history.
She is a teacher, as is clear from her manner.
Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, _____, of course, made the others envy(嫉妒) him.
A. who B. that C. what D. which
Carol said the work would be done by October, _____ personally I doubt very much.
A. it B. that C. when D. which
关系代词：which / who / whom / whose /as
关系副词：when / where
1.I am doing different types of exercises, all of __which__are quite helpful to my health.
2.Many people , some of ___whom___are not overweight , are going on diets.
3.There are 54 students in my class, three of _ whom____come from US.
1. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% ________ are sold abroad.
A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that
2. The English play _______ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success.
A. for which B.at which C. in which D. on which
3. There were dirty marks on her trousers _______ she had wiped（抹，擦） her hands.
A. where B. which C. when D. that
4. I have many friends, some ___ are businessmen.
A. why B. from which C. who of D. of whom
5. If a shop has chairs _______ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop.
A. that B. which C. when D. where
6. I walked in our garden, ____ Tom and Jim were tying（捆绑） a big sign onto one of the trees.
A. which B. when C. where D. that
7. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer what it was 20 years ago, ______ it was so poorly equipped.
A. when B. which C. what D. that
8. Jim passed the driving test, _______ surprised everybody in the office.
A. which B. that C. this D. it
v I believe that everything is going on well. ---宾语从句
v She was reading a novel when I came in. ---状语从句
v She is the girl who sings best in my class. ---定语从句
1. 陈述部分带有否定词，疑问部分为肯定式。如：few, hardly, little, never, no, nobody, nothing, rarely, scarcely, seldom
You found nobody to help you, ___ ___?
You found nobody to help you, did you?
I wish to do something for you, ___ ____?
I wish to do something for you, may I?
3. 陈述部分的谓语是have/have to do, 疑问部分为don’t +主语
I have to get the ticket four days ahead, don’t I?
4. 陈述部分谓语是must, 疑问部分则根据实际情况来定。
You must be thirsty, ___ ___?
You must be thirsty, aren’t you?
He must have drunk a lot of beer last night, ____ ___?
He must have drunk a lot of beer last night, didn’t you?
She must be going to be promoted, ___ ___?
She must be going to be promoted, won’t she?
Mike must have finished his homework, ___ ____?
Mike must have finished his homework, hasn’t he?
5. 如果陈述部分是由believe, expect, imagine, think等词引导宾语从句，疑问部分动词以从句中的谓语动词而定，否定与肯定则与主句相反。
I can’t imagine how pretty she is, ___ ___?
I can’t imagine how pretty she is, is she?
I expect he enjoys the party, ____ ____?
I expect he enjoys the party, doesn’t he?
She never believes her dream will come true, ___ __?
She never believes her dream will come true, will it?
6. 如果陈述部分是祈使句，疑问部分应用shall, will, 或won’t。
Have more coffee, won’t you?
Don’t be so impatient, will you?
7. Let起始的反义疑问句，疑问部分用shall we, will you或won’t you。
Let’s do it, shall we?
Let us do it, will you?
8. 陈述部分以there be起始，疑问部分用be there反问。
There is no water in the glass, is there?
There will be problems to be solved, won’t there?
What a big house, ___ ___?
What a big house, isn’t it?
What a big house!=What a big house it is!
How hard he tried, ___ ___?
How hard he tried, didn’t he?
10. 陈述部分的主语为不定代词someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, nobody时，疑问部分的主语用代词they。
Nobody called me while I was out, ____ ____?
Nobody called me while I was out, did they?
Everybody is excited at the great news, ___ ___?
Everybody is excited at the great news, aren’t they?
1. You never told us his phone number, _______?
A. hadn't you B. didn't you C. had you D. did you
2. I don't think you've heard of him before, ________?
A. don't I B. do I C. have you D. haven't you
3. Mountains can be very dangerous, ________?
A. can't they B. aren't they C. don't they C. won't they
4. "Jill has a toothache."
"It's been hurting her for quite a while, _______?"
A. isn't it B. doesn't it C. wasn't it D. hasn't it
5. Beginners have to learn from their mistakes, _______ they?
A. haven't B. mustn't C. don't D. aren't
learn from 从……学到
6. "It's awfully cold this morning."
"Yes, but it's not colder than it was yesterday, _____ it?"
A. wasn't B. isn't C. is D. was
7. Let's try a bit harder, _______?
A. will we B. shall we C. do we D. are we
u表示人、事物经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time，usually 等时间状语；
lHe usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning.
lKnowledge is power.
lThe earth goes around the sun.
lGuangzhouis situated in the south ofChina.
I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in primary school.
时间状语从句中常用的引导词：when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment/the minute, the day;
If he accepts the job, he will get more money soon.
l考点三：在the+比较级… the+比较级 … 句型中, 若主句是一般将来时, 从句通常用一般现在时。
The harder you study, the better results you will get.
— What would you do if it _____ tomorrow?
— We have to carry it on ,since we’ve got everything ready.
A. rain B. rains C. will rain D. is raining
We are having English class now.
The house is being built these days.
The little boy is always making mistakes.
Look out when you are crossing the street.
Don't wake him up if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning.
u现在完成时（have+done）：表示动作发生在过去，对现在仍有影响。常与already, yet, recently, lately 或频度副词often, never, ever, seldom, twice 等连用。
I have studied English for 15 years.
We have been to the Great Wall many times.
He hasn’t translated the novel yet.
l考点一：for + 时间段；since + 时间点
They have lived inBeijingfor five years.
They have lived inBeijingsince 2004.
I have learned English for ten years.
l考点二：当出现“最近几世纪/ 年/ 月以来”的时间状语时，谓语动词常用现在完成时。
in the past few years/months/weeks/days;
over the past few years;
during the last three months;
for the last few centuries；
Scientists have made a lot of efforts to protect our environment in the past few years.
uIt is the best (worst/most interesting ) +名词 ＋that…
uThis is the first (second) time that…
This is my first time (that) I have visited China.
It is the most interesting film I have ever seen.
This is the second time that he has broken a cup.
She is the most successful woman I have ever known.
1、I bought a new house last year, but I ＿＿＿ my old house yet, so at the moment I have two houses.
A. didn’t sell B. have not sold
C. had not sold D. don’t sell
2、—The window is dirty.
— I know. It ______ for weeks.
A. hasn’t cleaned B. didn’t clean
C. wasn’t cleaned D. hasn’t been cleaned
u现在完成进行时(have been doing):表示过去某一时刻发生的动作，一直延续到现在，并且还可能继续下去。
lI have written an article.（已完成）
lI have been writing an article. （还在写）
Now that she is out of a job, Lucy ____going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet.
A. had considered
B. has been considering
D. is going to consider
u过去完成时（had+done）:表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作，即过去完成时的动作发生在“过去的过去”，句中有明显的参照动作或时间状语(by, before, until)，这种时态不孤立使用 .
lThere had been 25 parks in our city up till 2000.
lBy the end of last term we had finished the book.
lThey finished earlier than we had expected.
考点一：把过去完成时放在by + 时间点或by the time + 从句的句子里考查。
By the end of last year, another new hospital ___ inBeijing.
would be established
was being established
has been established
had been established
考点二：用于hardly/scarcely...when; no sooner ...than 句型中，主句用过去完成时，从句用一般过去时。
I had hardly finished my work when he came to see me.
I had no sooner got into the room than it began to snow.
No sooner had I got into the room than it began to snow.(倒装)
No sooner had I arrived home than the telephone rang.
lThat was the second time that she had seen her grandfather.
l考点四：动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan 用过去完成时，表示未实现的愿望、打算和意图。
lI had intended to see you but I was too busy.
lI had hoped that I could do the job.
u将来完成时（will/shall+have done）：表示将来某个时间之前会发生或者可能完成的事情，常于by, before, when等介词或连词引导的表示将来的时间短语或从句连用。
When we get there they'll probably have left.
By the end of this centuryChinawill have become one of the strongest and wealthiest country in the world.
考点一：当出现下列时间状语（by+将来的时间：如by the end of this year, by 8 o’clock this evening, by March next year以及由by the time…, before或when等引导的副词从句），主句常使用将来完成时态。
lBy the time you reach the station, the train will have left.
lBy next Tuesday, I will have got ready for the exams.
By the time the course ends, ______ a lot about the culture of this country.
A. we’ll learn B. we are learning
C. we have learnt D. we’ll have learnt
常与明确的过去时间连用，如：yesterday; last week; in 1945, at that time; once; during the war; before; a few days ago; when等。
I got home at 9 o’clock last night.
I got the Master Degree in 2009.
考点一：used to + do，表示过去经常发生但现在已不再存在的动作或习惯。
lHe used to smoke a lot.
lHe has got used to getting up early.
be/become/get used to + doing，表示习惯做某事。
lHe promised to buy me a computer if he got a raise.
lHello, I ____ you were inLondon. How long ____ here?
A. don’t know; were you
B. hadn’t known; are you
C. haven’t known; are
D. didn’t know; have you been
lThe boy was doing his homework when his father came back from work.
lWhat were you doing at nine last night?
lThe radio was being repaired when you called me.
例：Shirely____a book aboutChinalast year but I don’t know whether she has finished it.
A. has written B. wrote C. had written D. was writing
l解析：根据I don’t know whether she has finished it可判断去年她应该一直在写。该题测试过去时间状语与过去进行时态在英语句式中的特殊用法。分析上下文语境可知，选项部分的谓语动词的动作并非在过去某一时间已经完成，而是指在过去某一时间正在进行，故应选过去进行时。注意：在这一句式结构中，只有延续性动词才可与过去时间状语用于过去进行时，强调在过去某一时间正在进行的动作。
6. 一般将来时：表示在将来某个时间会发生的动作或情况。常和tomorrow, next year, in 2020等表示将来的时间状语连用。
lTokyowill host the Summer Olympic Games in 2020.
lI will go to the library tomorrow.
考点一：某些表示短暂性动作的动词如arrive, come, go, leave, start等，用现在进行时形式表示将来。
lI am leaving forBeijingtomorrow.
考点二：“祈使句 + and/or + 句子”，这种结构中and后面的句子谓语用一般将来时。
lUse your head and you will find a way.
lCall the university operator, ____ you will find the phone number of Professor Smith.
A. so B. and C. when D. before
l考点三：“be (am, is, are) going to + do”，表示打算要做的事或可能要发生的事,也可表示说话人的意图和打算。
lWe are going toParisnext summer.
l“be about to + do”表示按照预定计划或打算准备着手进行的动作。
lThe train is about to leave.
l“be to + do”表示必须、必然或计划将要做的事。
lThey are to be married in this May.
come true, take place, keep silence, lose heart, happen, become, rise, occur, appear, die, disappear, end, fail, last, exist, fail, succeed…
lIt took place before liberation.
lThe film lasts for 2 hours.
lWe cannot say for sure what will happen.
lWe can't exist without air.
l考点二：下列动词的主动语态表示被动意义, 常与well, quite, easily, badly等副词连用。主语通常为物，且具有某种内在的特点。如：lock, wash, sell, read, wear, blame, ride, smell, write…
lGlass breaks easily.
lThe case locks easily.
lThe book sells well.
lThe window won’t shut.
lThis paper tears easily.
lIt is said…,
lIt is reported…,
lIt is widely believed…，
lIt is expected…,
lIt is estimated…,
lIt is well known…
lIt is said that Tom has passed CET 4.
lIt is well known that Nobel Prize is one of the highest international honors.
lneed doing= need to be done
lYour hair needs cutting.=Your hair needs to be cut.
lThe book is really worth reading.
lYou ought to have put the milk in the refrigerator,
A) I smell B) it is smelt
C) it smells D) it is smelling
lHe does not possess a bicycle, this one he uses
A) is belonged to B) belonged
C) belongs D) is belonging
lIn Chinese mainland, a great number of colleges and universities ____since 1949.
A) has been establish
B) have been established
C) have established
D) had been established
l—What else did you do this morning besides doing the shopping?
l—Two hours ____ washing the windows and floor.
lA. were taken B. was spent
lC. has taken D. will be spent
l It is ten years since women to vote in theUnited States.
lA. was allowing
lC. were allowed
lD. had been allowed